Ferric Salts are used in many different municipal and industrial applications. In water and wastewater treatment operations, ferric salts are used as coagulants or flocculants for water clarification, odour control to minimize hydrogen sulfide release, for phosphorus removal, and as a sludge thickening, conditioning and dewatering agent.
Liquid Ferric Sulphate is a red-brown aqueous solution that is typically sold as a 50% or 60% strength solution, on a dry basis. Based on ferric iron (Fe+3) contents of 10% and 12% respectively for the two concentrations of liquid ferric sulfate, the formula for dry ferric sulfate would be Fe2(SO4)3•8.8H2O. The maximum concentration of ferric iron is approximately 13% in commercial liquid products.
Iron(III) Sulphate, also called ferric Sulphate, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3and with iron in the +3 oxidation state. The colour of iron(III) chloride crystals depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light, the crystals appear dark green, but by the transmitted light they appear purple-red. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is deliquescent, forming hydrated hydrogen chloride mists in moist air. It is rarely observed in its natural form, the mineral molysite, known mainly from some fumaroles.
When dissolved in water, iron(III) chloride undergoes hydrolysis and gives off heat in an exothermic reaction. The resulting brown, acidic, and corrosive solution is used as a flocculant in sewage treatment and drinking water production, and as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is a fairly strong Lewis acid, and it is used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.
- taken from Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron(III)_chlorid
Why is ferric Sulphate base?
Why is ferric sulphate used in water treatment?
What neutralises ferric sulphate?
Are Iron based coagulants hazardous?
What is the use of Ferrous sulphate?
Iron(III) chloride is used in sewage treatment and drinking water production. In this application, FeCl3 in slightly basic water reacts with the hydroxide ion to form a floc of iron(III) hydroxide, or more precisely formulated as FeO(OH)−, that can remove suspended materials.
- [Fe(H2O)6]3+ + 4 HO− → [Fe(H2O)2(HO)4]− + 4 H2O → [Fe(H2O)O(HO)2]− + 6 H2O
- FeCl3 + Cu → FeCl2 + CuCl
- FeCl3 + CuCl → FeCl2 + CuCl2
Iron(III) chloride is used as a catalyst for the reaction of ethylene with chlorine, forming ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), an important commodity chemical, which is mainly used for the industrial production of vinyl chloride, the monomer for making PVC.
- H2C=CH2 + Cl2 → ClCH2CH2Cl
Ferric Sulphate Other Uses
- Used in anhydrous form as a drying reagent in certain reactions.
- Used to detect the presence of phenol compounds in organic synthesis; e.g., examining purity of synthesised Aspirin.
- Used in water and wastewater treatment to precipitate phosphate as iron(III) phosphate.
- Used by American coin collectors to identify the dates of Buffalo nickels that are so badly worn that the date is no longer visible.
- Used by bladesmiths and artisans in pattern welding to etch the metal, giving it a contrasting effect, to view metal layering or imperfections.
- Used to etch the widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites.
- Necessary for the etching of photogravure plates for printing photographic and fine art images in intaglio and for etching rotogravure cylinders used in the printing industry.
- Used to make printed circuit boards (PCBs).
- Used in veterinary practice to treat overcropping of an animal’s claws, particularly when the overcropping results in bleeding.
- Reacts with cyclopentadienylmagnesium bromide in one preparation of ferrocene, a metal-sandwich complex.
- Sometimes used in a technique of Raku ware firing, the iron coloring a pottery piece shades of pink, brown, and orange.
- Used to test the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and other alloys.
- Used in conjunction with NaI in acetonitrile to mildly reduce organic azides to primary amines.
- Used in an animal thrombosis model.
- Used in energy storage systems
- Historically it was used to make direct positive blueprints.
- A component of modified Carnoy’s solution used for surgical treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT)
Where can I buy Ferric Sulphate?
What is the use of flocculant?
Chemical Economics Handbook
In industrialized regions (United States, Western Europe, and Japan), ferric chloride markets are relatively mature. Although it is recognized as a highly effective flocculant and sequestering agent for sludge and odor control, substitution from competing products will lead to relatively flat demand growth. In Asia and the Middle East, where economic and population expansion has drawn greater demand for water management, ferric chloride continues to experience above- average growth. For countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which have mostly completed compliance with new regulations, or many countries in Latin America, which are slow to invest in infrastructure or adopt necessary environmental and health legislation, growth is likely to be slower. As a result, global demand is forecast to increase by only about 1% per year through 2021.
Consumption in the United States is forecast to grow at 1.3% annually during 2016-21. Ferric chloride producers tend to have a regional, rather than a national outlook because transportation costs are significant. More than 80% of all ferric chloride is sold in municipal bids, with 53% sold for municipal wastewater applications, and 37% for potable water treatment applications. Industrial water treatment applications account for 6% of consumption, with the remaining 5% sold in non-water treatment applications, such as electronic and photographic etchants, metal surface treatment, and as a catalyst. Much of the etchant activity has moved to Asia. Electronic applications, especially for PCBs, are small in the United States.
In Western Europe, ferric chloride is used mostly as a coagulant for sewage treatment and potable water production. It is also used as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards, a precursor in synthetic iron oxide and speciality pigment production, and in the pharmaceutical industry, where it is used as a precursor for iron-bearing medicine for anaemia treatment. Growth in Western Europe is stable, with all countries having installations in place to comply with EU legislation for clean water standards in both the municipal and industrial sectors. In the forecast period, consumption is expected to stagnate, with a largely mature water treatment market. No new uses for ferric chloride are on the horizon.
Water treatment will continue to be the largest end use for ferric chloride in China, accounting for about 69% of the total consumption in 2016. Wastewater is treated and recycled extensively for industry use and farm irrigation. Although industry wastewater discharge has been decreasing in recent years, the discharge of domestic sewage has been growing rapidly. Therefore, as a very economic wastewater treatment agent, ferric chloride in this end use is expected to increase moderately at an average annual rate of 2.9% during 2016-21.
an excerpt is taken from the chemical economics handbook* – https://ihsmarkit.com/products/ferric-chloride-chemical-economics-handbook.html
Iron(III) chloride is harmful, highly corrosive and acidic. The anhydrous material is a powerful dehydrating agent.
Although reports of poisoning in humans are rare, ingestion of ferric chloride can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate labelling and storage lead to accidental swallowing or misdiagnosis. Early diagnosis is important, especially in seriously poisoned patients.
Aggregated GHS information provided by 260 companies from 20 notifications to the ECHA C&L Inventory. Each notification may be associated with multiple companies.Reported as not meeting GHS hazard criteria by 2 of 260 companies. For more detailed information, please visit ECHA C&L websiteOf the 19 notification(s) provided by 258 of 260 companies with hazard statement code(s):H290 (53.88%): May be corrosive to metals [Warning Corrosive to Metals] H302 (86.43%): Harmful if swallowed [Warning Acute toxicity, oral] H315 (70.16%): Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation] H317 (17.44%): May cause an allergic skin reaction [Warning Sensitization, Skin] H318 (60.47%): Causes serious eye damage [Danger Serious eye damage/eye irritation] H319 (19.77%): Causes serious eye irritation [Warning Serious eye damage/eye irritation] H335 (21.32%): May cause respiratory irritation [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; Respiratory tract irritation]Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities, additives, and other factors. The percentage value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from companies that provide hazard codes. Only hazard codes with percentage values above 10% are shown.
P234, P261, P264, P270, P271, P272, P280, P301+P312, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P312, P321, P330, P332+P313, P333+P313, P337+P313, P362, P363, P390, P403+P233, P404, P405, and P501
(The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found here.)
Is It Corrosive?
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GPC Clear Solutions Ferric Sulphate is a high performance inorganic primary coagulant based on trivalent iron (Fe 3+).
- This product is scientifically formulated for use in drinking water applications, wastewater treatment and effluent treatment.
- It is effective over a wide pH range.
- This product also can be used as an effective odour control agent and will aid phosphorus removal. It can also be used as a sludge conditioning agent and will inhibit corrosion by controlling the formation of hydrogen sulphide.
- High-performance primary coagulant
- Excellent for drinking water, wastewater treatment and effluent treatment applications
- Effective over a wider pH range
- Available in convenient liquid
- Chloride free
- Cost effective coagulant
- Excellent for the treatment of wastewater where low pH is required – removal of fats, oil and grease, high colour
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