How are polymers formed?

How are polymers formed?

Monomers and polymers Alkenes can be used to make polymers. Polymers are very large molecules made when many smaller molecules join together, end-to-end. The smaller molecules are called monomers.   In general: lots of monomer molecules → a polymer molecule.   Alkenes can act as monomers because they are unsaturated (they have a double bond): ethene can polymerise to form poly(ethene), also called polythene propene can polymerise to form poly(propene), also called polypropylene.   Uses of polymers Different polymers have different properties, so they have different uses. The table below gives some examples. Examples of polymers and their uses Polymer Typical use polythene plastic bags and bottles polypropene crates and ropes polychloroethene water pipes and insulation on electricity cables Polymers have properties that depend on the chemicals they are made from, and the conditions in which they are made. For example, there are two main types of poly(ethene): LDPE, low-density poly(ethene), is weaker than HDPE, high-density poly(ethene), and becomes softer at lower temperatures. Modern polymers have many uses, including: new packaging materials waterproof coatings for fabrics (such as for outdoor clothing) fillings for teeth ...
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What Is Flocculation? GPC Has The Answer

What Is Flocculation? GPC Has The Answer

What is Flocculation? The term “flocculation” generally refers to an actual effect while the term “flocculant” describes a chemical or substance that promotes flocculation and usually has a positive charge. Flocculation is when microscopic particles bind together to form larger particles in liquids. It occurs naturally or artificially in water as well as other solutions. Flocculation is used in applications such as water purification, sewage treatment, cheese production, and brewing. How Flocculation Works https://youtu.be/VTlHo7iOPlQ Flocculation occurs when small particles in a solution lose their repelling forces and begin to attract one another. The small particles then bond together to form “flocs” or “flakes.” Under most circumstances, a flocculant is necessary to begin the flocculation process. The most common flocculants are iron, aluminum, magnesium, and calcium. When flocs are fully formed, they can be removed from the solution they are in through traditional filtration methods. Applications Water can be treated via flocculation to remove microscopic dust particles, dirt, and other airborne substances that produce the cloudiness seen in some...
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What Are Flocculants?

What Are Flocculants?

So you are asking what are flocculants? By definition, Flocculants are a substance which promotes the clumping of particles, especially one used in treating wastewater. Flocculants are a substance sometimes found naturally or sometimes artificially in water which helps promote the clumping of fine particles into a floc. This is beneficial because the floc can then float to the top of the liquid ( flotation), it can be filtered from the liquid or it can settle at the bottom ( sedimentation ). The floc can then be scraped away or filtered if need be making the separation from the water process much simpler. We supply and use Flocculants in many different industries, from Abattoirs to food manufacturers and breweries but mainly to the wastewater industry. GPC Clear Solutions Limited can offer a FREE, no-obligation onsite evaluation of your current effluent discharge procedure which can include: Evaluation of existing effluent processing equipment. Evaluation of existing wastewater treatment chemicals Collection of current incoming and outgoing effluent A FREE full-colour technical report...
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Coagulation and Flocculation Water Treatment Specialists

Coagulation and Flocculation Water Treatment Specialists

Gpc Clear Solutions are Coagulation and Flocculation Water Treatment Specialists https://youtu.be/U_LVYZHrhbU Emulsion and powder flocculants At GPC Clear Solutions Limited, our highly efficient coagulants and flocculants are designed for solid-liquid separation of suspended solids in wastewater. Chemical coagulation and flocculation are effective in the removal of suspended solids in wastewater. During the solid-liquid separation process, coagulants are added which destabilises the colloidal suspension. Flocculants are then introduced to collect the coagulated solids resulting in larger flocs of suspended solids content in the wastewater. The larger flocs separate resulting in clear water. The majority of these chemicals added to the process do not stay in the aqueous phase. They are attached to the solids that are further processed and removed from the treatment area. Our high standard chemicals come in various grades and forms which are available for use depending on the application. Anionic emulsion grade polymers A range of high molecular weight anionic water in oil emulsions. These products are suitable for inline dilution before being added...
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What chemicals are used in an Effluent Treatment Plant?

What chemicals are used in an Effluent Treatment Plant?

What chemicals are used in an Effluent Treatment Plant? One form of wastewater treatment is to use an Effluent Treatment Plant; this method is used to purify industrial wastewater for its reuse and safe release into the environment. Industrial effluents contain various materials depending on the industry.  One of the main contributing factors to Industrial wastewater charges are the quantity of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Suspended Solids (SS) present in the effluent. Some effluents contain oils and grease, and some contain toxic materials (e.g. Cyanide). Effluents from food and drink factories contain degradable organic pollutants whilst effluents from metal plating factories contain inorganic pollutants.  This means that all effluents and wastewater streams are different and contain a diversity of impurities and therefore site-specific chemical treatment is needed. The Effluent Treatment Plant needed for each process can greatly vary as every effluent behaves differently.  Effluent that naturally floats will require chemicals and equipment that aids this, e.g. DAF plant. Conversely, Effluent that...
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What Is Polyacrylamide

What Is Polyacrylamide

What is Polyacrylamide? Polyacrylamide otherwise known as PAM is an organic polymer formed from acrylamide sub-units. It has many uses and is known throughout many industries or its versatility and quality, but one of the main purposes is in the separation of solids/liquids in the municipal and industrial wastewater sectors. Initially, it is produced with a simple, repeating, linear chain structure, but can be modified to form highly structured, branched and cross-linked variants. As part of the manufacturing process, the ionic characteristics of the polymer can be manipulated to achieve varying degrees of anionic (negative charge) or cationic (positive charge) qualities and non-ionic (minimal charge), which is a key factor during the polymer selection process. Uses: Polyacrylamide is used to flocculate solids in a liquid. This process applies to water treatment and processes like papermaking and screen printing. Polyacrylamide can be supplied in a powder or liquid form, with the liquid form being sub-categorised as a solution and a white emulsion polymer. The nature of...
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What Is Coagulation In Wastewater Treatment

What Is Coagulation In Wastewater Treatment

What is Coagulation in wastewater treatment? how can flocculants and coagulants help your business? How can they save you potential fines and help you stay compliant? Have a read of our article and get in touch with our team who will be happy to answer any questions. Coagulation and flocculation describe the chemical process of contact and adhesion whereby the particles of a dispersion (colloids) form a larger-size cluster (flocs or flakes) allowing them to be more easily removed from water (e.g. by settling). The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of suspended and colloidal particles. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration. In water treatment, coagulation-flocculation involves the addition of polymers that clump the small, destabilized particles together into larger aggregates so that they can be more easily separated from the water. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. The coagulation-flocculation...
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COD Removal – Chemical Oxygen Demand

What is COD in Wastewater? COD or Chemical Oxygen Demand is the total measurement of all chemicals in the water that can be oxidized. TOC or Total Organic Carbon is the measurement of organic carbons. How is COD measured? At the GPC Clear solutions Laboratory, Our trained laboratory technicians test for Chemical Oxygen Demand using a spectrophotometer. The method involves using a strong oxidizing chemical, potassium dichromate Cr2O72-, to oxidize the organic matter in solution to carbon dioxide and water under acidic conditions. Often, the test also involves a silver compound to encourage oxidation of certain organic compounds and mercury to reduce the interference from oxidation of chloride ions. The sample is then digested for approximately 2 hours at 150°C. The amount of oxygen required is calculated from the quantity of chemical oxidant consumed. Why is the reduction of COD important? The reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand is important because Higher COD levels mean a greater amount of oxidizable organic material in the sample, which will reduce dissolved oxygen...
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